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Reading List: AI and Education Policy

Edited by: Leah Friedman and Pooja Saxena

The following reading list was compiled by CIRCLS’ AI and Education Policy Expertise Exchange, which convened from March-June, 2021. The reading list reflects discussions and topics that surfaced during the Exchange.

Some articles and websites are focused specifically on the intersection of governance, AI, and EdTech, while others more broadly cover AI governance without a focus on education. There is also a section on AI Literacy and resources for educators, which surfaced as an important future topic to address through policy.

Included under each article is a brief bulleted overview of what each article covers and how much technical background each article requires.
All contributors from the group are credited at the bottom of this reading list.

Last Updated: 7/21/2021


Global AI and Ed Policy Overview:

UNESCO Guide to Artificial Intelligence in Education
Type of Article: Policy brief/Popular Science Post
APA Citation: UNESCO. (2021, May 31). Artificial intelligence in education. UNESCO. https://en.unesco.org/artificial-intelligence/education.
Background Needed: Low
Covers:

  • Details UNESCO initiatives internally and for its members states in AI and Ed Policy
  • Describes UNESCO initiative for teaching AI in schools
  • Outlines components of the Beijing Consensus on AI & Education
  • Includes an overview of in-progress UNESCO AI readiness self-assessment for states
  • Links to UNESCO’s longer “AI and Education: Guidance for Policy-makers

U.S. State/National AI and Ed Policy Overview:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Education
Resource Type: Part of the collection Congressional Research Service Reports
Citation: Joyce, J. L., & Harris, L. A. (2018). Artificial intelligence (AI) and education. UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.
Background Needed: None
Covers:

  • Current applications and advantages and disadvantages of AI in classrooms
  • Steps taken by Congress to address issues of privacy of students’ personal information
  • Policy considerations about student privacy, teacher preparation, product procurement and support, and algorithmic accountability

Global AI and Ed Policy Resources

The following resources provide entry points for understanding the limited amount of global policies that exist on AI in Education.

UNESCO Artificial Intelligence in Education: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Development
Type of Article: Working Academic Paper on policy and bulleted overview
APA Citation: Pedro, F., Subosa, M., Rivas, A., & Valverde, P. (2019). Artificial intelligence in education: challenges and opportunities for sustainable development. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000366994.
Background Needed: Medium
Covers:

  • Links to working paper on AI in Education with a brief bulleted overview of the paper
  • Covers case studies from specific countries AI initiatives and curriculums
  • Presents 6 challenges (policy and otherwise) in AI and education

Institute for Ethical AI in Education(UK) and The Ethical Framework for AI in Education
Type of Article: Website with links to reports on ethics in AI education
APA Citation: European Commission of the European Union. (n.d.). AI Watch. Knowledge for Policy. https://knowledge4policy.ec.europa.eu/ai-watch_en#featured-content.
Background Needed: Low-Medium
Covers:

  • Website for the Institute for Ethical AI in Education
  • Links to interim and final reports on ethics in AI Education
  • Interim reports review top issues and criteria for developing ethical educational AI

Artificial Intelligence, tech corporate governance and the public interest regulatory response
Type of Article: Academic Article
APA Citation: Dignam, A., (2020). Artificial intelligence, tech corporate governance and the public interest regulatory response. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 13(1). p 37-54. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsaa002
Background Needed: Medium
Covers:

  • Overviews and clarifications on AI
  • Description of possible regulatory paths in favor of private vs. public interests
  • Global focus, with specific attention on EU, US, and China

The Chinese Approach to Artificial Intelligence: An Analysis of Policy and Regulation
Type of Article: Academic Article
APA Citation: Roberts, H., Cowls, J., Morley, J., Taddeo, M., Wang, V., Floridi, L. (2020), The Chinese Approach to Artificial Intelligence: An Analysis of Policy and Regulation. SSRN. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3469783
Background Needed: Medium
Covers:

  • Discusses socio-political background and policy debates shaping China’s AI strategy
  • Approaches China’s policies from a lense of ethics

International Society for Technology in Education Policy Advocacy
Resource Type: Website
APA Citation: International Society for Technology Education. (n.d.). Take action for ed tech. https://www.iste.org/advocacy
Background Needed: Medium
Covers:

Global AI Non-Ed Policy Resources

These resources survey AI policies from around the world that are not necessarily specific to educational contexts.

Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development and OECD National AI Policies & Strategies
Type of Article: Interactive Dashboard
APA Citation:
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (n.d.). OECD AI Policy Observatory. OECD.AI Policy Observatory. https://oecd.ai/.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (n.d.). National AI Policies & Strategies. OECD.AI Policy Observatory. https://oecd.ai/dashboards
Background Needed: Varies widely
Covers:

  • Breaks down initiatives by country that relate to AI Policy by number of policies and allocated budget
  • Categorizes policy instruments into mechanism of action

The EU AI Watcher Site
Type of Article: Compilation of articles on AI policy
APA Citation: European Commission of the European Union. (n.d.). AI Watch. Knowledge for Policy. https://knowledge4policy.ec.europa.eu/ai-watch_en#featured-content.
Background Needed: Low
Covers:

  • Tracks AI policies across all EU member states

Future of Life Institute: Global AI Policy Overview
Type of Article: Primer with compiled links on global AI initiatives
APA Citation: Future of Life Institute. (2021, June 7). GLOBAL AI POLICY. Future of Life. https://futureoflife.org/ai-policy/?cn-reloaded=1.
Background Needed: Medium
Covers:
Links to 14 different AI issue areas with papers, reports, and articles on each
Map of global AI policy initiatives

European Union’s New Rules for Artificial Intelligence: Question & Answer (May 2021)
Type of Article: Primer for policies
APA Citation:
European Union. (2021, April 21). New rules for Artificial Intelligence – Questions and Answers. European Commission . https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/QANDA_21_1683.
Background Needed: Low
Covers:

  • Q&A on new regulations from the EU on Artificial Intelligence
  • Categorizes AI systems into different levels of risk and explains categories
  • Reviews regulations on biometric identification and racial/gender bias in AI
  • Reviews compliance and enforcement mechanisms
  • Overview of the Coordinated plan between member states

GovAI 2019 Annual Report – University of Oxford Center for Governance of AI
Type of Article: Website with links to all of the center’s published research
APA Citation: University of Oxford Future of Humanity Institute – AI Governance Research Group. (2019). (rep.). GovAI 2019 Annual Report. Oxford, UK. https://www.fhi.ox.ac.uk/ai-governance/govai-2019-annual-report/
Background Needed: Middle
Covers:

  • Website for the Oxford Center for Governance of AI
  • Links to the center’s research on AI governance
  • Covers topics like U.S. public AI opinion, AI standards, AI scientific publishing, and more

My Data Rights South Africa
Type of Article: Website for understanding AI & Data rights in South Africa
APA Citation: Chair, C. (2021, May 27). My Data Rights: Our Data, Our Rights. My Data Rights. https://mydatarights.africa/.
Background Needed: Low
Covers:

  • Feminist perspective of AI, privacy, and data protection enhance digital rights
  • Documentation of AI and Gender harms in South Africa
  • Walkthrough of feminist approaches
  • Policy questions and recommendations for AI

Safe & Ethical Artificial Intelligence Policy from the Government of Tamil Nadu Information Technology Department
Type of Article: Report on AI with a framework and scorecards for evaluation
APA Citation: Government of Tamil Nadu. (2020). (rep.). Tamil Nadu Safe & Ethical Artificial Intelligence Policy 2020. https://indiaai.gov.in/research-reports/tamil-nadu-safe-ethical-artificial-intelligence-policy-2020
Background Needed: Low-Medium
Covers:

  • Primer of AI in its current state and the need for safety and ethics
  • Framework for evaluation of AI systems before public roll-out
  • Scorecard for safe and ethical AI
  • Overview of AI awareness, capacity building, and training

Coded Bias
Type of Article: Documentary
APA Citation: 7th Empire Media. (2020). Coded Bias. United States. https://www.codedbias.com/.
Background Needed: None
Covers:

  • Follows computer scientist Joy Buolamwini and other AI researchers who are pushing to expose bias and misuse of AI systems such as facial recognition
  • Available on Netflix, PBS, and some other streaming platforms

U.S. Federal/State AI and Ed Policy Resources

The U.S. has limited federal and state regulations that are specific to AI. The following resources address AI and educational technology through a policy lens.

STEM For All Video Showcase: Helping States Plan to Teach AI in K-12 and AI4K12
Type of Article: Video and Website Link
APA Citation: Gardener-McCune, C., Cox, B., Delyser, L., Jacobs, K., Seehorn, D., Speed, H., and Touretzky, D. (2021). Helping States Plan to Teach Ai in K-12. Stem for All Video Showcase. TERC and National Science Foundation. https://stemforall2021.videohall.com/presentations/2115.
AI4K12. (n.d.). https://ai4k12.org/.
Background Needed: Low
Covers:

  • Outlines workshop that prepared state representatives to build AI in K-12 curricula
  • Describes the AI4K12 organization

Mapping an Emergent Field of ‘Computational Education Policy’: Policy Rationalities, Prediction and Data in the Age of Artificial Intelligence
Type of Resource: Academic Article
Citation: Gulson, K. N., & Webb, P. T. (2017). Mapping an emergent field of ‘computational education policy’: Policy rationalities, prediction and data in the age of Artificial Intelligence. Research in Education, 98(1), 14-26.
Background Needed: Medium-High
Covers:

  • Identifies rationalities of the policy sciences and computational policy
  • Examines issues around prediction, transparency, and data to investigate how AI and education policy converge
  • Provides mapping of computational policy

Out of the Laboratory and into the Classroom: the Future of Artificial Intelligence in Education
Resource Type: Academic Article
Citation: Schiff, D. (2021). Out of the laboratory and into the classroom: the future of artificial intelligence in education. AI & Society, 36(1), 331-348.
Background Needed: Medium-High
Covers:

  • Explores the implication of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIEd) and provides recommendations for a responsible research agenda to AI researchers and developers through a policy lens
  • Assesses the status of AIEd with a special focus on intelligent tutoring systems
  • Provides a starting point to AIEd stakeholders for improving their “socially responsible research and implementation” in AI educational systems

U.S. Federal/State EdTech Non-AI Policy Resources

The following resources address policies for educational technologies that are not necessarily specific to AI but will affect the use of AI tools in educational settings.

Reimagining the role of technology in education: 2017 National education technology plan update
Resource Type: U.S. Department of Education Report
Citation: Office of Educational Technology. (2017). Reimagining the role of technology in education: 2017 National education technology plan update. U.S. Department of Education.
Background Needed: None
Covers:

  • State, regional, and local visions for technology-enabled learning, teaching, assessment, and infrastructure
  • The role of technology to educate and empower learners, teachers, and leaders in formal and informal contexts
  • Links to the Higher Education Supplement to the NETP– a document that examines learning, teaching, assessment, and infrastructure in higher education

Student Privacy Compass
Resource Type: Webpage
Citation: Student Privacy Compass. (n.d.). About. https://studentprivacycompass.org/about/
Background Needed: Low-Medium
Covers:

Senators Markey and Cassidy propose bipartisan bill to update children’s online privacy rules
Resource Type: Press Release
Citation: United States Senators for Massachusetts. (2021, May 11). Senators Markey and Cassidy propose bipartisan bill to update children’s online privacy rules. https://www.markey.senate.gov/news/press-releases/senators-markey-and-cassidy-propose-bipartisan-bill-to-update-childrens-online-privacy-rules
Background Needed: Low
Covers:

  • Information about Children and Teens’ Online Privacy Protection Act to protect both children and teenagers online
  • A copy of the legislation is posted here
  • This news is also covered here

COPPA (Children and Teen’s Online Privacy Protection Act)
Resource Type: Overview of CIPA, COPPA, and FERPA
Citation: Kozak, D. (2015). Overview of CIPA, COPPA, and FERPA. Technology Services.
https://www.spps.org/cms/lib/MN01910242/Centricity/Domain/11270/OverviewofCIPACOPPAandFERPA12.2015.pdf
Background Needed: Medium
Covers:

  • Breaks down the coverages of CIPA, COPPA, and FERPA in education.
  • Includes press release of FTC that provides parents greater control over their kids’ information.

COPPA Guidance for EdTech Companies and Schools during the Coronavirus
Resource Type: Business Blog
Citation: Schifferle, L. W. (2020, April 9). COPPA guidance for ed tech companies and schools during the Coronavirus. https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/blogs/business-blog/2020/04/coppa-guidance-ed-tech-companies-schools-during-coronavirus
Background Needed: Low
Covers:

Project Unicorn EdTech Vendor Data Interoperability Pledge
Resource Type: Pledge
Citation: Project Unicorn at Innovate EDU. (2020). EdTech Vendor Pledge. Project Unicorn. https://www.projectunicorn.org/edtechvendorpledge/.
Background Needed: Low
Covers:

  • Pledge for EdTech vendors to commit to increasing secure access, privacy, and interoperability in products
  • Legally enforceable yet voluntary sign-on

U.S. Federal/State AI Non-Ed Policy Resources:

The following resources address policies for educational technologies that are not necessarily specific to AI but will affect the use of AI tools in educational settings.

Artificial Intelligence: An Accountability Framework for Federal Agencies and Other Entities
Type of Resource: Government Report and Overview
Citation: Government Accountability Office. (2021). (rep.). Artificial Intelligence: An Accountability Framework for Federal Agencies and Other Entities. Washington, D.C. https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-21-519sp
Background Needed: Medium
Covers:

  • Government Office of Accountability report on AI that breaks the framework into Data, Monitoring, Governance, and Performance
  • Developed from AI forum of experts and interviews with government officials and AI experts.
  • Page links to full report as well as fast facts and a video on the topic.

A Review of Artificial Intelligence in Government and its Potential from a Public Policy Perspective
Type of Resource: Academic Article
Citation: Valle-Cruz, D., Alejandro Ruvalcaba-Gomez, E., Sandoval-Almazan, R., & Ignacio Criado, J. (2019). A review of artificial intelligence in government and its potential from a public policy perspective. In Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (pp. 91-99).
Background Needed: High
Covers:

  • The research question is: “What are the current AI trends in the public sector?”
  • Authors reviewed 78 papers in the field. Their findings suggest that most papers published so far are normative and exploratory in nature
  • The field faces immense public policy challenges in this area.

Artificial Intelligence and Public Policy
Resource Type: Academic Article
Citation: Thierer, A. D., Castillo O’Sullivan, A., & Russell, R. (2017). Artificial intelligence and public policy. Mercatus Research Paper.
Background Needed: Medium-High
Covers:

  • Authors argue for “prudence, patience, and a continuing embrace of permissionless innovation” in relation to digital technologies
  • Comparing the onset of AI technologies to the development of the internet, the paper describes how policymakers can formulate “pro-growth” policies while focusing on “oversight and accountability” for consumers.

Aiming for truth, fairness, and equity in your company’s use of AI
Resource Type: Business Blog
Citation: Jillson, E. (2021, April 19). Aiming for truth, fairness, and equity in your company’s use of AI. Federal Trade Commission. https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/blogs/business-blog/2021/04/aiming-truth-fairness-equity-your-companys-use-ai
Background Needed: Low-Medium
Covers:

  • Includes laws of the Federal Trade Commission for developers and users of AI.
  • Discusses how to use AI equitably.

General AI Privacy/Transparency Policy Resources

The resources in this section address issues related to creating ethical and transparent AI technologies. These resources are not necessarily related to policy.

Ethical and Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics
Type of Article: Academic Article
Citation: Pardo, A., & Siemens, G. (2014). Ethical and privacy principles for learning analytics. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(3), 438-450.
Background Needed: Medium
Covers:

  • Identifies principles and pragmatic mechanisms for designing learning experiences embedded in ethical and privacy issues
  • Proposes guidelines for complying with privacy principles in emerging legislative initiatives

Building Consentful Tech Zine
Type of Article: Zine
APA Citation: Lee, U., and Toliver, D. (2017). Building Consentful Tech [Zine]. ripplemap.io/zine
Background Needed: Low
Covers:

  • What is consentful technology and why put energy into it
  • What consentful tech looks like.

Coded Bias Declaration of Data Rights as Human Rights
Type of Article: Coded Bias documentary film signable declaration of data rights as human rights
APA Citation: Universal Declaration of Data Rights as Human Rights. Coded Bias. (n.d.). https://www.codedbias.com/sign.
Background Needed: Low
Covers:

  • Outlines demands from the coded bias documentary to treat data rights as human rights
  • Site links to other coded bias resources as well as where to find the documentary.

Artificial Intelligence, Transparency, and Public Decision-making
Resource Type: Academic Article
Citation: de Fine Licht, K., & de Fine Licht, J. (2020). Artificial intelligence, transparency, and public decision-making. AI & Society, 1-10.
Background Needed: Medium
Covers:

  • How public perception of the legitimacy of “decisions and decision-makers” in AI is affected by the transparency of those decisions
  • Discusses the partial transparency about the decision making in AI and how complete transparency may not be better.

AI and Ed Literacy Non-Policy Resources

The resources in this section provide information largely for educators on AI in education. These include curriculum resources, reports, webinars, and academic articles.

Artificial Intelligence in Education: Putting Educators and Students in the Driver’s Seat
Type of Article: ISTE’s Website with linked guides to AI for educators
APA Citation: International Society for Technology in Education. (n.d.). Artificial Intelligence in Education: Putting Educators and Students in the Driver’s Seat. ISTE. https://www.iste.org/areas-of-focus/AI-in-education.
Background Needed: Low-Middle (Varies)
Covers:

  • Links to all level guides in English, Spanish, and Arabic
  • Links to additional books and courses on teaching AI
  • Links to case studies on educators applying AI in the classroom
  • Link to other podcasts, blogs, and guides for AI in the classroom
  • Additional AI ethics volumes released in 2021

AI4All Open Learning: AI Curriculum and Community for High School Teachers
Type of Article: Open AI Curriculum for K-12 Educators
APA Citation: AI4All. (n.d.). AI Curriculum and Community for High School Teachers. AI4All. https://ai-4-all.org/open-learning/resources/.
Background Needed: Low-Middle (Varies)
Covers:

  • Short and longer curriculums on teaching AI
  • Links to additional teaching resources and community events
  • Included under the “bytes” section: curriculum around ethical issues in AI (Privacy, Explainability, and Fairness) where students pretend they were CEOs of a company designing an ed tech product that they consider how their ethics are going to be part of developing.

Digital Promise: How Does Artificial Intelligence Fit into the Future of Education
Type of Article: Blog post with links to webinars
APA Citation: Fusco, J., Bellin, M., & Roschelle, J. (2021, February 24). How Does Artificial Intelligence Fit into the Future of Education? [web log]. https://digitalpromise.org/2021/02/24/how-does-artificial-intelligence-fit-into-the-future-of-education/.
Background Needed: Low
Covers:

  • What is an AI system?
  • Educators, AI, and the Future of Learning Webinars
  • How to get involved and other resources links.

ISTE and SkillRise: Selecting Technology Tools for your Organization is as easy as ABC
Type of Article: Blog post
APA Citation: Black, N.B. (2020). Selecting technology tools for your organization is as easy as ABC [web log]. https://skillrise.org/article/selecting-technology-tools-your-organization-easy-abc
Background Needed: Low-Medium
Covers:

  • Covers selection of EdTech tools based on various principles
  • Outlines criteria for technology aligning with a vision
  • Outlines criteria for technology aligning with stakeholders.

IBM AI Education: Free Live and On-Demand Webinars for K-12 Educators
Type of Article: Resource page with links to AI for Educators
APA Citation: IBM and MindSpark Learning. (n.d.). IBM AI Education: Free Live and On-Demand Webinars for K-12 Educators. IBM and MindSpark. https://www.mindspark.org/ibm-ai
Background Needed: Low-Medium
Covers:

  • Gives a brief overview of the necessity for AI education and webinars
  • Sign up link to hear about AI webinars for educators
  • Links to all IBM AI webinars for educators.

CoSN Report on Artificial Intelligence (AI) in K-12
Type of Article: Report
APA Citation: Consortium for School Networking and Microsoft. (2020). (rep.). CoSN Artificial Intelligence (AI) in K-12.
Background Needed: Low-Medium
Covers:

  • Promises and challenges of AI in education
  • Questions and Considerations for Schools
  • Additional Resources.

Teaching Tech to Talk: K-12 Conversational Artificial Intelligence Literacy Curriculum and Development Tools
Article Type: Academic Article
APA Citation: Van Brummelen, J., Heng, T., Tabunshchyk, V. (2020). Teaching Tech to Talk: K-12 Conversational Artificial Intelligence Literacy Curriculum and Development Tools. Computers and Society. https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.05653v1
Background Needed: Medium-High
Covers:

  • Study that evaluates a conversational agent interface with respect to eight AI competencies
  • Analyzes teacher and student feedback on the interface
  • Finds that student struggled most with concepts of AI ethics and learning.

Youth and Artificial Intelligence: Where we stand
Type of Article: Academic Article
APA Citation: Hasse, A., Cortesi, S., Lombana-Bermudez, A., & Gasser, U. (2019). Youth and artificial intelligence: Where we stand. Youth and Media, Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society. Retrieved from: https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/40268058
Background Needed: Medium
Covers:

  • An overview of the ways that 12-18-year-olds interact with and are impacted by AI
  • Spotlights some of the AI work done by Harvard’s Youth and Media team
  • Highlights key questions of concern and next steps for the team.

Ethics of AI in Education: Towards a Community-Wide Framework
Type of Article: Academic
Citation: Holmes, W., Porayska-Pomsta, K., Holstein, K., Sutherland, E., Baker, T., Shum, S. B., … & Koedinger, K. R. (2021). Ethics of AI in education: towards a community-wide framework. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 1-23.
Background Needed: Medium-High
Covers:

  • Recommends critical focus on fairness, accountability, transparency, bias, autonomy, agency, and inclusion in Artificial Intelligence in Education research
  • Invited 60 researchers from AIEd community to respond to a survey on ethics and application of AI in educational settings
  • Compiled the responses of 17 participants and described the complex issues raised by them.

Contributors
Nancye Black, Trisha Callella, Dalila Dragnić-Cindrić, Phillip Eaglin, Amy Eguchi, Joseph Fatheree, Leah Friedman, Judi Fusco, Kip Glazer, Dave Jarboe, Sarah Judd, Arun Balajiee Lekshmi Narayanan, Deblina Pakhira, Ally Reith, Pati Ruiz, Pooja Saxena, Kasey Van Ostrand