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Reading List: Epistemic Cognition

Edited By Dalila Dragnić-Cindrić

When designing emerging technologies for learning, researchers often aim both for learning specific topics as well as for learning how to think better. Epistemic Cognition is thinking about what and how we know, including the ways in which we acquire knowledge, justify, adapt, and use it. Effective epistemic cognition is key for helping students think better, carefully analyze information, and identify what they know versus what they doubt or distrust.


Barzilai, S., & Chinn, C. A. (2020). A review of educational responses to the “post-truth” condition: Four lenses on “post-truth” problems, Educational Psychologist, 55(3), 107-119.

Barzilai, S., & Chinn, C. A. (2018). On the goals of epistemic education: Promoting apt epistemic performance, Journal of the Learning Sciences, 27(3), 353-389.

Barzilai, S., & Zohar, A. (2012). Epistemic thinking in action: Evaluating and integrating online sources. Cognition and Instruction, 30, 39-85.

Cartiff, B. M., Duke, R. F., & Greene, J. A. (2020). The effect of epistemic cognition interventions on academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication.

Chinn, C. A., Buckland, L. A., & Samarapungavan, A. (2011). Expanding the dimensions of epistemic cognition: Arguments from philosophy and psychology. Educational Psychologist, 46, 141-167.

Chinn, C. A., Rinehart, R. W., & Buckland, L. A. (2014). Epistemic cognition and evaluating information: Applying the AIR model of epistemic cognition in D.N. Rapp & J.L. Braash (Eds.), Processing inaccurate information: Theoretical and applied perspectives from cognitive science and the educational sciences (pp. 425-453). The MIT Press.

Chinn, C., & Sandoval, W. (2018) Epistemic Cognition and Epistemic Development. In International Handbook of the Learning Sciences. Routledge.

Goldman, S. R., Britt, A. M., Brown W., Cribb G., George M., Greenleaf C., Lee, C. D., Shanahan, C., & Project READI (2016). Disciplinary literacies and learning to read for understanding: A conceptual framework for disciplinary literacy, Educational Psychologist, 51(2), 219-246.

Greene, J. A., Duke, R. F., & Cartiff, B. M. (2018) A meta-analytic review of the relationship between epistemic cognition and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(8), 1084-1111.

Greene, J. A., Sandoval, W. A., & Bråten, I. (Eds.). (2016). Handbook of Epistemic Cognition. Routledge.

Greene, J. A., & Yu, S. B., (2016). Educating critical thinkers: The role of epistemic cognition. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3(1), 45-53.

Herrenkohl, L. R., & Cornelius, L. (2013). Investigating elementary students’ scientific and historical argumentation. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 22(3), 413-461.

Hofer, B. K., & Bendixen, L. D. (2012). Personal epistemology: Theory, research, and future directions. In K. R. Harris, S. Graham & T. Urdan (Eds.), APA Educational Psychology Handbook (Vol. 1: Theories, constructs, and critical issues, pp. 227-256). American Psychological Association.

Louca, L., Elby, A., Hammer, D. & Kagey, T. (2004). Epistemological resources: Applying a new epistemological framework to science instruction. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 57-68.

Rosenberg, S., Hammer, D., & Phelan, J. (2006). Multiple epistemological coherences in an eighth-grade discussion of the rock cycle. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15, 261-292.

Sandoval, W. A. (2012). Situating epistemological development. In J. van Aalst, K. Thompson, M. J. Jacobson & P. Reimann (Eds.), The future of learning: Proceedings of the 10th international conference of the learning sciences (Vol. 1, pp. 347-354). International Society of the Learning Sciences.

Sandoval, W. A., Greene, J. A., Bråten, I. (2016). Understanding and promoting thinking about knowledge: Origins, issues, and future directions of research on epistemic cognition. Review of Research in Education, 40(1), 457–496.

(First Draft, 11/24/2020; last updated 11/25/20)

Thank you to Dr. Jeff Greene for contributions to this list.